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Pages of Testimony

Pages of Testimony, which have been submitted to Yad Vashem since the mid-1950s by family members and friends, record the names and biographical data of those who perished. They serve as symbolic paper tombstones for those who have no marked graves. The Pages of Testimony are an attempt to give the victims back their personal identity, and dignity, which the Nazis and their accomplices tried so hard to obliterate.

The Pages of Testimony featured here contain the names and stories of some of the Jews who died during Kristallnacht- some were murdered by Nazis, and some took their own lives in despair.

To search Yad Vashem's Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names for additional Pages of Testimony, click here.

Alexander Falk

Alexander Falk

Alexander Falk was born on January 9, 1857 in Beckum, Germany. He was murdered during Kristallnacht. In 1933, there were 86 Jews living in Beckum. On Kristallnacht, the synagogue and school were completely destroyed, along with Jewish stores and homes. A number of Jews were hounded through the streets and physically assaulted.

This Page of Testimony was submitted by Alexander Falk’s son.

Josephine Baehr

Josephine Baehr

Josephine Baehr was born in 1882 in Lemferde, Germany. Married to Leopold and the mother of 2, Josephine committed suicide in Bassum, Germany, when the Nazis came to arrest her husband and then demolished her home. Bassum was home to a very small Jewish community – some of whom were deported during Kristallnacht.

This Page of Testimony was submitted by Josephine Baehr’s daughter.

Dr. Bernhard Rosenthal

Dr. Bernhard Rosenthal

A gynecologist by profession, Dr. Bernhard Rosenthal committed suicide on November 10, 1938 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. During and following Kristallnacht, many doctors, having been previously barred from treating non-Jews and watching their practices dwindle, committed suicide. In Frankfurt am Main, the Kristallnacht pogrom began on the morning of November 10, when storm troopers looted and set fire to the main synagogues, broke into Jewish homes and stores, looting goods, smashing windows and attacking any Jew that they met. 2,621 Jews were paraded before a hostile mob and sent to Buchenwald concentration camp.

This Page of Testimony was submitted by Dr. Rosenthal’s wife.

Leonhard Ferdinand Plachte

Leonhard Ferdinand Plachte

During Kristallnacht, Leonhard Plachte was thrown from a window in Glogau, Germany and perished. The community of Glogau had 503 Jews in 1933. The community maintained two synagogues and various organizations, including a sports club and a B’nai Brith lodge. On Kristallnacht, the synagogue and Jewish stores were burned.

This Page of Testimony was submitted by Leonhard Plachte’s cousin.

Leopold Schoen

Leopold Schoen

Leopold Schoen was born on March 3, 1911 in Gross-Siegharts, Austria. He perished during the events of Kristallnacht on November 10, 1938.  During Kristallnacht, in Vienna where Leopold Schoen lived, 42 synagogues were burned and 4,000 stores were looted.

This Page of Testimony was submitted by Leopold Schoen’s brother.

Martin Cobliner

Martin Cobliner

Born December 9, 1892, Martin Cobliner was a music teacher in Hamburg, Germany. He committed suicide on November 10,1938 when the Gestapo came to arrest him. Although Jews in Hamburg had been subject to discrimination and abuse before Kristallnacht, the anti-Jewish violence on November 9-10 in Hamburg reached new heights. Synagogues and stores were vandalized, and 910 Jews were arrested.

This Page of Testimony was submitted by Martin Cobliner’s sister.

Max Freundlich

Max Freundlich

Married and the father of three children, Max Freundlich died while being arrested on November 9, 1938 in Jastrow, Germany.  He was a cattle and horse dealer. By 1937, there were approximately 125 Jews living in Jastrow. On Kristallnacht, the synagogue was destroyed, Jewish businesses were demolished and the men were taken to Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

This Page of Testimony was submitted by Max Freundlich’s daughter.

Selma Zwienicki

Selma Zwienicki

Born in 1882, Selma was shot and killed in her home in Bremen, Germany, during Kristallnacht by SA stormtroopers when she refused to reveal the whereabouts of her husband.  At the time of the Nazi takeover in 1933, there were over 1000 Jews living in Bremen. As a result of boycott measures, the community was unable to maintain several of its institutions, but did manage to step up its internal cultural life and to counter growing social isolation. On Kristallnacht, the synagogue, which had already been the target of acts of violence, was set on fire, the cemetery was desecrated, and Jewish men were arrested. This Page of Testimony was submitted by Selma Zwienicki’s daughter.